HYPHE-NATED

Grammar Korean For Everyone Korean Lessons

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : PRESENT CONTINUOUS -고 있어요 PAST -었어/-았어요

CONTINUED FROM Complete Beginner Lesson – GRAMMAR : IMITATING WORDS BAM 쾅! SWOOSH 휙! GRRRR 으르렁! AND MANY MORE

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : PRESENT CONTINUOUS

  • Drop the 다 ending from the verb stem and add the following, which means “~ing” in English.

Casual formality

Verb + 고 있어

Polite Low Formality

Verb + 고 있어요

Polite High Formality

Verb + 고 있습니다

EXAMPLE)

가다 — to go
Casual formality: 가고 있어
Polite low formality: 가고 있어요
Polite high formality: 가고 있습니다

읽다 — to read
Casual formality: 읽고 있어
Polite low formality: 읽고 있어요
Polite high formality: 읽고 있습니다

하다 — to do
Casual formality: 하고 있어
Polite low formality: 하고 있어요
Polite high formality: 하고 있습니다

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : PRESENT CONTINUOUS
SAMPLE (PRACTICE QUIZ)

Convert the following base form verbs into the three formality forms (present continuous).

사다 — to buy

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

입다 — to wear

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

먹다 — to eat

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

ANSWER

사다 -> 사고 있어 / 사고 있어요 / 사고 있습니다

입다 -> 입고 있어 / 입고 있어요 / 입고 있습니다

먹다 -> 먹고 있어 / 먹고 있어요 / 먹고 있습니다

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : PAST

  • Drop the 다 ending from the verb stem
  • Add 았다 to the verb stem if the verb ends in either ㅗ or ㅏ. 보다 (to see) -> 보았다.
  • Add 었다 if the verb doesn’t end in a vowel that’s neither ㅗ nor ㅏ. 먹다 (to eat) -> 먹었다.
  • Some verbs that end in a vowel will merge. 사다 (to buy) -> 샀다 (o) 사았다 (x)

Casual formality

Verb (ending in ㅏ/ㅗ) + 았어

Verb (ending in anything else) + 었어

Polite Low Formality

Verb (ending inㅏ/ㅗ) + 았어요

Verb (ending in anything else) + 었어요

Polite High Formality

Verb (ending in a vowel + 았습니다

Verb (ending in a consonant) 었습니다

EXAMPLE)

가다 — to go
Casual formality: 갔어
Polite low formality: 갔어요
Polite high formality: 갔습니다

읽다 — to read
Casual formality: 읽있어
Polite low formality: 읽었어요
Polite high formality: 읽었습니다

하다 — to do
Casual formality: 했어
Polite low formality: 했어요
Polite high formality: 했습니다

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : PAST
SAMPLE (PRACTICE QUIZ)

Convert the following base form verbs into the three formality forms (past).

사다 — to buy

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

입다 — to wear

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

먹다 — to eat

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

ANSWER

사다 -> 샀어 / 샀어요 / 샀습니다

입다 -> 입었어 / 입었어요 / 입었습니다

먹다 -> 먹었어 / 먹었어요 / 먹었습니다

So, how you holding up? Getting the hang of it? Good! We have just 5 more!

CONTINUED Complete Beginner Lesson – GRAMMAR : KOREAN VERBS AND CONJUGATION RULES – FUTURE – ㄹ 거야 / – ㄹ 거예요 / – 을 거야 / – 을 거예요 / PROPOSITIVE – 아 / 어 / – 세요 / 으세요 / – 십시오 / 으십시오

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