HYPHE-NATED

Grammar Korean For Everyone Korean Lessons

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : Inquisitive Present -아/어요? Past 았/었어요? Future -ㄹ/을 거예요?

CONTINUED FROM Complete Beginner Lesson – GRAMMAR : KOREAN VERBS AND CONJUGATION RULES – FUTURE – ㄹ 거야 / – ㄹ 거예요 / – 을 거야 / – 을 거예요 / PROPOSITIVE – 아 / 어 / – 세요 / 으세요 / – 십시오 / 으십시오

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : INQUISITIVE PRESENT

  • Drop the 다 ending from the verb stem
  • The final vowel determines whether 아 or 어 is used in the casual form or 아요 or 어요 is used in the polite form.
  • Use 아요 if the last vowel in the verb is ㅏor ㅗ. 놀다 (to play) → 놀아요
  • Use 어요 if the last vowel in the verb is anything else. 얼다 (to freeze) → 얼어요
  • If the verb stem ends in a vowel, the 아 / 어 that you add to the verb stem will combine with the previous syllable.

Casual formality

Verb (ending inㅏ/ㅗ) + 아?

Verb (ending anything else) + 어?

Polite Low Formality

Verb (ending inㅏ/ㅗ) + 아요?

Verb (ending anything else) + 어요?

Polite High Formality

Verb Verb (ending in a vowel)+ㅂ니까?

Verb (ending in a consonant) + 습니까?

EXAMPLE)

가다 — to go
Casual formality: 가?
Polite low formality: 가요?
Polite high formality: 갑니까? (가+ㅂ니까?)

읽다 — to read
Casual formality: 읽어?
Polite low formality: 읽어요?
Polite high formality: 읽습니까? (읽+습니까?)

하다 — to do
Casual formality: 해?
Polite low formality: 해요?
Polite high formality: 합니까? (하+ㅂ니까)?

This time 하다 follows the rule!

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : INQUISITIVE PRESENT
SAMPLE (PRACTICE QUIZ)

Convert the following base form verbs into the three formality forms (present continuous).

사다 — to buy

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

입다 — to wear

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

먹다 — to eat

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

ANSWER

사다 -> 사? / 사요? / 삽니까?

입다 -> 입어? / 입어요? / 입습니까?

먹다 -> 먹어? / 먹어요? / 먹습니까?

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : Inquisitive Past

  • Drop the 다 ending from the verb stem
  • Just like present tense verbs, some verbs that end in a vowel will condense.

For example: 사다 (to buy) + 았어? becomes 샀어요? instead of 사았어요?

Casual formality

Verb (ending inㅏ/ㅗ) + 았어?

Verb (ending anything else) 었어?

Polite Low Formality

Verb (ending inㅏ/ㅗ)+ 았어요?

Verb (ending anything else) + 었어요?

Polite High Formality

Verb (ending in a vowel) + 았습니까?

Verb (ending in a consonant) + 었습니까?

EXAMPLE)

가다 — to go
Casual formality: 갔어? (가+았어?)
Polite low formality: 갔어요? (가+았어여?)
Polite high formality: 갔었습니까? (갔+었습니까?)

읽다 — to read
Casual formality: 읽었어?
Polite low formality: 읽었어요?
Polite high formality: 읽었습니까?

하다 — to do
Casual formality: 했어?
Polite low formality: 했어요?
Polite high formality: 했습니까?

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : INQUISITIVE PAST
SAMPLE (PRACTICE QUIZ)

Convert the following base form verbs into the three formality forms (past).

사다 — to buy

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

입다 — to wear

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

먹다 — to eat

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

ANSWER

사다 -> 샀어? / 샀어요? / 샀습니까?

입다 -> 입었어? / 입었어요? / 입었습니까?

먹다 -> 먹었어? / 먹었어요? / 먹었습니까?

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : Inquisitive Future

  • Drop the 다 ending from the verb stem
  • If the verb ends in a vowel or 을, add ㄹ to the verb stem
  • You don’t need to add anything to verbs ending in ㄹ, though

Casual formality

Verb (ending in a vowel) + ㄹ

Verb (ending in a consonant) + 을 거야?

Polite Low Formality

Verb (ending in a vowel) + ㄹ

Verb (ending in a consonant) 을 거예요?

Polite High Formality

Verb (ending in a vowel) + ㄹ 겁니까

Verb (ending in a consonant) + 을 겁니까?

EXAMPLE)

가다 — to go
Casual formality: 갈 거야?
Polite low formality: 갈 거예요?
Polite high formality: 갈 겁니까?

읽다 — to read
Casual formality: 읽을 거야?
Polite low formality: 읽을 거예요?
Polite high formality: 읽을 겁니까?

하다 — to do
Casual formality: 할 거야?
Polite low formality: 할 거예요?
Polite high formality: 할 겁니까?

Korean Verbs and Conjugation Rules : INQUISITIVE FUTURE
SAMPLE (PRACTICE QUIZ)

Convert the following base form verbs into the three formality forms (past).

사다 — to buy

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

입다 — to wear

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

먹다 — to eat

Casual formality:

___________________

Polite low formality:

___________________

Polite high formality:

___________________

ANSWER

사다 -> 살 거야? / 살 거예요? / 살 겁니까?

입다 -> 입을 거야? / 입을 거예요? / 입을 겁니까?

먹다 -> 먹을 거야? / 먹을 거예요? / 먹을 겁니까?

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